Sunday, January 12, 2020
Modern literature does not show the extent to which literature has come. Medieval forms of literature reflected an unprecedented level of purity and originality. A study of the similarities and dissimilarities between cultures reveals the exchange of ideology that occurred many centuries ago. This gives weight to the assertion that modern forms of literature from different regions of the world once shared certain characteristics. It should not get assumed that the different forms of literature arose from the same inspiration. Rather, the varying types of literature occurred separately. However, due to improvements in technology and communication, forms of literature have become similar over time. An in-depth look at Egyptian, Indian, and Chinese literatures highlights this clearly. China and India, as countries from the East, have a winding, rich, and spectacular literary tradition. The exchange of literary accomplishments between the two nations has never ceased even until modern times. The primary groundwork for such an exchange became established through the introduction of Buddhism into China. As a result of this introduction, Indian literature began imparting nourishment to its Chinese counterpart. Thus, Chinese literature adopted plenty of influences from Indian literature. Resulting effects on Chinese literature have manifested themselves in aspects of aesthetic tendency, form, subject, rhetoric and vocabulary. In ancient times, Buddhism served as the key medium for Chinese-Indian literary exchanges. Chinese literature has become more and more influenced by Indian literature in recent times due to the assimilation of Buddhist influences. Nevertheless, the extent and nature of the literary exchange between India and China has become two-sided and complementary in recent times. There exist similarities and differences between Chinese and Indian literature. In both Chinese and Indian literature, the form of literature gets classified as primarily oral. In both Chinese and Indian literatures, extensive written forms of literature appeared in later periods compared to the emergence of oral forms of literature. In both Chinese and Indian literature, the emergence of written forms of literature arose due to the spread of literacy programs pioneered by the ruling authorities in both countries. Also, both Indian and Chinese literatures have different forms of literature contributing to the overall state of literature in the respective countries. Moreover, both Indian and Chinese literatures have experienced changes due to modern influences from the western world. On the other hand, a few differences arise between Chinese and Indian literature. Chinese literature has always gotten expression through only one language. This has remained true for the over 3000 years which the Chinese civilization has existed. On the contrary, Indian literature has experienced segmentation due to the presence of numerous languages within India. The Indian culture has officially recognized 22 languages and among these languages, 21 of them have establishes their own unique forms of literature. Indian literature has gotten influence from the various traditions that have governed over the country. Throughout its history, various family traditions have dictated the nature of ownership over the country. In turn, the varying styles of ownership have had an unmistakable effect on the types of literature. Thus, different ownership periods as demarcated by family traditions have different kinds of literature. Conversely, various dynasties throughout the whole period of its sovereign existence have ruled China. This has led to the classification of types of literature based on the particular dynasty that ruled the country at the time of the emergence of the literature. These dynasties include Zhou, Qin, Han, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing. During the existence of all these dynasties, various forms of literature have arisen. For instance, early woodblock and poetry became embraced during the Tang dynasty while novels gained prominence during the Ming dynasty. Chinese and Egyptian literatures share many points of reference. Both forms of literature began experiencing formative influences before the Common Era. Egyptian literature has its roots in ancient Egyptian culture. Along with Sumerian literature, ancient Egyptian literature gets classified as the one of the earliest forms of literature. In both forms of literature, the ownership periods played a key role towards the definition and classification of different types of literature. Both Chinese and Egyptian forms of literature have pioneered forms of writing, which had not existed earlier. Egyptian literature gave rise to hieroglyphics. Also, the writing of blurbs began in the 14th century Egyptian times. The writing of blurbs thus emerged as a key component of literary writing in the contemporary world. Both forms of literature have allowed the influence of different forms of literature from other countries. Egyptian literature became molded by the influx of foreign poets who flocked the town of Alexandria. These poets originated from Greece and Rome. They immigrated to Alexandria so as to utilize the library facility in the town. As a result of their extended stay in Egypt, the poets began expressing their literature in Arabic language. Inevitably, the existing literature within Egypt became fused with the literature brought by the European poets. The infiltration and influence of Indian Buddhism has played a prominent role in the shaping the Chinese literature toward adopting Indian connotations. Meditation has become a key component of Chinese literature unlike previous times. This lays testament to the fact that Indian Buddhism has left an indelible mark on Chinese literature. In Chinese literature, the initial form of literature consisted primarily of oral forms. Written forms of literature appeared during later periods of civilization. This stands in stark contrast to Egyptian literature, which has the autobiography as its oldest form. Egyptian literature got expressed in papyrus reeds. These provided the writing material on which ancient Egyptian writers would record their literary works. Also, Egypt invented calligraphy, which emerged as a key means of writing during that era. Chinese literature has received influence primarily stemming from the ruling influences within the country. The dynasties that have exercised governorship over the country have molded the types of literature within China. In contrast, Egyptian literature has experienced influences stemming from external sources. The conquering of Egypt by Muslim Arabs had a major impact on the literature in Egypt. Libraries became established and literature thrived. Papyrus reeds became replaced by cloth paper as writing surfaces. Another difference between Egyptian and Chinese literature appears when it comes to the overriding motive behind the change in literature. In Chinese literature, the changes undertaken in literature have occurred involuntarily and with the noble aim of improving the Chinese culture. On the other hand, changes in Egyptian literature have become implemented for the sole purpose of embracing Islam. The majority of Egyptian literature back in medieval times consisted of wisdom literature. This shows that the wider number of Egyptian literary works got written mainly for instruction and guidance. Such instruction recognizes the social format of life that exists in Egypt. Family values take the first place in Egypt. As a result, the forms of literature within the country give precedence to the values honored by families. However, the majority of forms of literature written in China became formulated for the purpose of entertainment. This arises due to the communal nature of the Chinese culture. Hence, the forms of literature become designed in such a way as to amuse and thereby engender a sense of togetherness within the community. ?Egyptian and Indian literatures have stunning similarities and glaring differences. The bulk of both Egyptian and Indian literatures bears literature intended for instruction. Both Egyptian and Indian cultures recognize the supremacy of family values. Thus, the literature of both countries became formulated with the intention of providing the families with instructive information regarding family life. Indian folklore and Egyptian folklore combined as key elements towards the formation of storytelling formats. Both Indian and Egyptian literatures have become molded for the purpose of accommodating religious beliefs. Literature in Egypt has evolved with the passage of time as it becomes more permissible to the Islamic faith and body of beliefs. Since Islam has gained wide acclaim as the state religion, the form of literature within Egypt has sought to reflect this truth in its form. This has endeavored to avoid hurting the religiously-trained consciences of Egyptians. In India, religion has had a major impact towards the changes that have occurred in Indian literature. India plays host to majority of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most populous forms of faith. Buddhism alone has had an understated effect on the form of Indian literature. The prevalence of meditation techniques within Egyptian literature gives evidence of the extent of Buddhist influence.? However, a few differences exist between Indian and Egyptian literatures. Egyptian literature had its beginnings much earlier than Indian literature. This necessarily makes Egyptian literature richer than Indian literature. The superior quality of Egyptian literature becomes apparent through a sober consideration of the genres that have gotten invented due to Egyptian literature. Indian literature has become classified in terms of tradition due to the ideologies that have governed the country. In the contrary, Egyptian literature has always manifested their Islamic inclinations. Also, Egyptian literature received notable influence from European poets while India has risen to become the source of poetic influence to other countries like China. The history of Egyptian literature had its beginnings in ancient Egypt. The River Nile had a massive influence on the development of Egyptian literature. The town of Alexandria served as a major confluence for the emergence of literary influences. This happened because of the presence of the Library of Alexandria. This library served as hubs for poets originating from Greece and Rome, which served as key world powers in that time. The influence of these foreign poets had an unprecedented effect on Egyptian literature. Beginning from the period of the tyrannical Pharaohs until the conclusion of the Roman EmpireÃ¢â¬â¢s rulership, ancient Egyptian literature got expresses in Egyptian language. Ancient Egyptian literature gains recognition as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s earliest form of literature along with other genres like Sumerian literature.? However, forms of writing in ancient Egypt did not surface until the late periods of the 4th century. This included both hieratic and hieroglyphic forms of writing. At some time before the modern era, the available literary works included epistles and letters, texts, hymns and poems, and memorials. These biographical texts got penned so as to document the professional lives of noteworthy administrative marshals. These developments notwithstanding, narrative forms of Egyptian literature became created in late periods of the 17th century BC. The formation of narrative forms sparked a media revolution in the whole of Egypt. Such a revolution occurred due to various factors. The unprecedented rise in literacy levels played a primary role for the revolution. Other factors included widespread access to written literature, rise of an intellectual class of scribes, new cultural sensibilities about individuality, unprecedented levels of literacy, and mainstream access to written materials.? The history and tradition of Indian literature primarily features verse though it also seems fundamentally oral. The earliest works became composed for the purpose of getting sung or recited. In this raw form, they became transmitted throughout a number of generations before getting written down as permanent recordings. As a result of this belated recording, the earliest records of a text appear later by several millenniums than the stated date of its initial composition. Furthermore, probably because the majority of Indian literature appears as either religious or as a reworking of common stories from the Sanskrit tales, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, and the mythological writings, the authors often maintain their anonymity. Biographical components and details of the lives of the majority of the earlier Indian authors appear only in much later myths and legends. In medieval Indian literature, the earliest works in many of the languages were sectarian, designed to advance or to celebrate some unorthodox regional. Much traditional Indian literature is derived in theme and form not only from Sanskrit literature but from the Buddhist and Jain texts written in the Pali language and the other Prakrits (medieval dialects of Sanskrit). This applies to literature in the Dravidian languages of the south as well as to literature in the Indo-Iranian languages of the north. Invasions of Persians and Turks, beginning in the 14th century, resulted in the influence of Persian and Islamic culture in Urdu, although important Islamic strands can be found in other literatures as well, especially those written in Bengali, Gujarati, and Kashmiri. After 1817, entirely new literary values were essay, and literary drama (this last incorporating both classical Sanskrit and Western models)Ã¢â¬âthat gradually engulfed the customary Indian verse genres. Urdu poets remained faithful to the old forms while Bengalis were imitating such English poets as Percy Bysshe Shelley or T. S. Eliot.? The history of ? Chinese literature extends for thousands of years. This started from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature fictional novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty. These mature fictional novels became penned for the sake of entertaining the masses of literate Chinese citizens. To various Westerners, Chinese literature remains hugely unexplored in comparison to the rich state of the Chinese culture. As a matter of fact, it is a treasure of a very considerable number of brilliant and profound works as each dynasty, in the long history of China, has passed down its legacy of magnificent events and works. For 3500 years, they have woven a variety of genres and forms encompassing poetry, essays, fiction and drama; each in its own way reflecting the social climate of its day through the high spirit of art. Chinese literature has its own values and tastes, its own reigning cultural tradition and its own critical system of theory. Chronologically, it can be divided into four main periods: classical, modern, contemporary, and the present-age literature. Classical literature refers to the earliest period and covers works from three thousand years ago to the late Qing Dynasty and is a virtually unbroken strand enduring dynastic changes. Since it was nearly always developed under the reign of centralized and unified government, it is imbued with the thoughts of a culture that embraced slavery and a feudal society. It was steeped in an enclosed environment that hardly had any real links with religion or least of all the literature of foreign cultures. ? Modern Literature refers to the period from the Opium War in 1840 to the May Fourth Movement in 1919. As the decadent reign of the Qing failed to inspire the minds of people, the literary forms had remained unchanged; till the Opium War in 1840. Then they absorbed the impact of western thoughts as foreigners poured in China and established their colonies. Novels, poetry and other works began to appear with a theme of patriotism and a revelation of social ills. Contemporary literature spanned the period from 1919 to the foundation of modern in 1949 and took on a new vigor, despite the fact that Chinese was in the throes of checkered and complicated times. This period was distinctive as it brought into being a new and revised literary language, form, content and skills allowing it to evolve into an independent and open art available to the whole of society. It attached great attention to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and a future with strong political tendencies. Influenced by the tide of the world literature, it provided wide and amiable communication between writers and readers. Present-Age literature has evolved since the establishment of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic in 1949. During this time, there was a logjam as a consequence of the Cultural Revolution that lasted for nearly 10 years. That era is now long past and we now have a favorable turn on events and a great number of responsible writers deepen the literary forms and content. Nowadays literature prospers. As the Chinese nation is a racial mix of Han people together with 55 other ethnic groups, literature reflects this. The various ethnic groups have contributed greatly in this field.? China stands as the only country worldwide with a mono-language literature for over 3,000 years. This continuity comes from the nature of the written language itself. It is the use of characters, not letters as in Western languages, that is, most important in the Chinese language. The characters stand for things or ideas and so, unlike groups of letters, they cannot and need never get sounded. Thus Chinese could be read by people in all parts of the country in spite of gradual changes in pronunciation, the emergence of regional and local dialects, and modification of the characters. A revolution held in China marked the dynasties whereby a clan ruled over an empire. Inevitably, the significant change of Chinese society that occurred with the change of government invariably led to an alteration of literature. Thus, Chinese literature gradually became westernized and Classical language got absolved from utilization. The national government desired for women to enjoy equal privileges like men. This clamor for an equal status in society resulted in plenty of women writers and scholars. As a result, the amount of politically oriented literature doubled. Academicians got unrestrained access to literature from foreign countries while plenty of students received scholarships so as to study abroad. The New Culture Movement became disbanded and writers endeavored to blaze the trail in transforming China into a modern industrialized nation. Writers also intended to replace Confucian life-style with a modern, westernized one. Under the leadership of the national government, there existed some freedom of expression. During that period of relative freedom, lots of different views and styles of literature became widely popular. But at the moment China came under attack from Japan, the resulting Communist victory led to the curtailing of former freedoms. For instance, only literature that met the approval of the government became allowed. Egyptian literature has also experienced plenty of changes due to interaction with western cultures. The expansion of the international market has necessitated the presence of many foreigners within Egyptian soil. As a result of such mingling, Egyptian literature has become influenced by western attitudes and notions. India has become a key player in the Commonwealth of Nations movement. Inevitably, it has become the focal point for conducting business within Asia. Thus, Indian literature has adopted other cultures. Buddhism has also become part and parcel of the literature of many other countries. This highlights the exchange that has undoubtedly occurred between Indian literature and other forms of literature. REFEREENCES Allen, James P. (2000), Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.? Foster, John Lawrence (2001), Ancient Egyptian Literature: An Anthology, Austin: University of Texas Press.? K, Kripalani (1970). Modern Indian Literature.? Knight, Sabina (2012). Chinese Literature : A Very Short Introduction. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, Very Short Introductions Series.? Levy, Andre (2000). Chinese Literature, Ancient and Classical. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.? Lichtheim, Miriam (2006), Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume II: The New Kingdom, with a new foreword by Hans-W. Fischer-Elfert, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.? M. , Winternitz. (1973) . A History of Indian Literature.? Mair, Victor H. (2001). The Columbia History of Chinese Literature. New York: Columbia University Press.? T. , W. , Clark. (1970). The Novel in India.? Quirke, S. (2004), Egyptian Literature 1800 BC, questions and readings, London: Golden House Publications.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"In King Lear good does not vanquish evil: it is evil that destroys itselfÃ¢â¬ ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy Ã¢â¬Å"King LearÃ¢â¬ discusses many notions the most important being the relationship between good and evil and the constant battle of the opposites; their dependency and the origin of wickedness, as well as the fact that something good can never Ã¢â¬Å"destroyÃ¢â¬ anything all play a key role in the question of if it is evil that destroys itself. The following essay will deliberate these ideas and compare good and evil throughout the play to show the self-destruction evil caused for itself. Throughout the entire play of Ã¢â¬Å"King LearÃ¢â¬ there are many acts of goodness as well as acts of wickedness that represent the two ideas of virtue versus deviltry thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This states that the word Ã¢â¬Å"destructionÃ¢â¬ already implies a negative and evil idea where as good would be determined as the opposite. Cordelia is a purely good character which shows even when she had the chance to fight evil, she did not reach for brutality or destruction of bad but rather tried to help the good and fix the terrible situation. Accordingly, if good were to destroy evil it could no longer be called Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ because it would be on the same level as evil and could not be differentiated anymore. It is therefore impossible for good to destroy evil, since it is basically incapable of wicked actions. EdmondÃ¢â¬â¢s death, however, could indicate the vanquishing of evil through good. The brothers Edmond and Edgar that represent evil and good, fight until Edgar finally kills his brother. On one hand, one could possibly see this as good overcoming evil since the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ brother killed the Ã¢â¬Å"evilÃ¢â¬ brother; yet this certain feeling of hope is quickly crushed by the tragic ending and the deaths of most of the main characters representing goodness in the play. On the other hand, it is evil that caused its own destruction all along due to the fact that it took on more than it could handle, striving for too much power which ultimately led to its own downfall. Edmond started off with a plan of taking over his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s and then his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s position but he got carried away by the idea of power that he competed for a position that was too high for him whichShow MoreRelatedPortrayal of Women in King Lear and Ran1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPortrayal of Wome n in King Lear and Ran Women have a position, characteristics and a role in King Lear and in Ran. These films take place in a time period when geography influenced the portrayal of women. A significant portion of how women were portrayed to the audience in both films is based on the positions women held in the established hierarchy and how their new position in the hierarchy impacted the people around them. The characteristics of female characters display very clearly how womenRead More Tragic Figures in King Lear by William Shakespeare Essay1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTragic Figures - Good/Evil in King Lear Ã Ã Ã Ã King Lear, by William Shakespeare, is a tragic tale of filial conflict, personal transformation, and loss.Ã The story revolves around the King who foolishly alienates his only truly devoted daughter and realizes too late the true nature of his other two daughters.Ã Ã A major subplot involves the illegitimate son of Gloucester, Edmund, who plans to discredit his brother Edgar and betray their father.Ã With these and other major characters in theRead More Comparison Of King Lear And Gloucester Essay543 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthe contrast for the themes in King Lear. Sub plots usually improve the effect of dramatic irony and suspense. The latter, which is used in King Lear, gives us the understanding of the emotions of the characters in the play. This follows the parallelism between Gloucester and King Lear. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In King Lear, the subplot of Gloucester corresponds to the major plot of King Lear. Both fathers have their own loyal legitimate child and their evil and disloyal child. They are bothRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s King Lear1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesINTRODUCTION: By facilitating the growth of evil within William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s King Lear, it is evident that the tragedyÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist, King Lear can be held accountable for his own victimization and ultimate downfall. The most notable aspects of this self-induced victimization include LearÃ¢â¬â¢s own lack of practical wisdom and divergence from the natural order, combined with the neglect of kingship, that enables Lear as a tragic hero to create the conceptual framework in which the ulterior motives ofRead MoreEssay The Foolishness of Fools in Shakespeares King Lear1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Foolishness of Fools in Shakespeares King Lear Shakespeares tragedy King Lear is comprised of many distinct themes. His contrasts of light and dark, good and evil, and his brilliant illustration of parallels between the foolishness of the plays characters and society allowed him to craft a masterpiece. Just as well, Shakespeares dynamic use of linguistic techniques such as pun and irony aid this illustration of the perfect microcosm, not only of 16th century Britain, but of all timesRead MoreKing Lear : A Shakespearean Shakespearian Tragedy1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe play King Lear is what is known as a Shakespearian tragedy. All that this means is that it was written by Shakespeare, possibly one of the most famous playwrights in history, and that the play is considered to fit into the category of a tragedy. A tragedy can be simply described as a play with an unhappy ending. Shakespeare wrote a number of tragedies, and readers of the plays debate which tragedies were the best. King Lear is certainly a well-known tragedy, but s hould it be counted as one ofRead MoreWilliam Shakespeares King Lear Essay954 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThroughout King Lear, Shakespeare gives the reader small moments of human goodness to contrast the evil in the play. L.C. Knights describes it as affirmation in spite of everything, (Coyle). These affirmative actions are clearly seen in response to the immorality, twisted values and evil that are so common throughout this play. These moments are used to give the reader an underlying faith in the human spirit despite the clear role of immorality and a lack of values. The instances of genuineRead MoreKing Lear by William Shakespeare803 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesBlindness is a theme that we see throughout King Lear in many characters including King Lear, Gloucester and Albany. Although blindness is a theme it is also a psychological metaphor and can be defined as not having sight.2 Shakespeare forces us to see that being blind is a mental flaw just as much as it is a physical flaw. Lear i s not only metaphorically blind but is also blind toward nastiness and loyalty . We see GloucesterÃ¢â¬â¢s blindness in more literal terms as he is literally blind but he canRead More Lack of Judgment by King Lear Essay1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLack of Judgment by King LearÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã King Lear is a play written by William Shakespeare that focuses on the relationships of many characters, some good, and some evil.Ã This is a great tragedy that is full of injustice at the beginning and the restoration of justice towards the end.Ã The good are misjudged as evil and the evil are accepted as good.Ã It is not until the end of the play that the righteous people are recognized as such. Ã There is great treachery and deceit involved inRead MoreHow the Sub-Plot Mirrors the Main Plot in King Lear by William Shakespeare895 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHow the Sub-Plot Mirrors the Main Plot in King Lear by William Shakespeare One can say that the sub plot does mirror the main plot to some extent. Some are in subtle ways and some are in the more obvious ways. Shakespeare has two plots in order to intensify the main theme of tragedy that runs throughout this play. The main plot is in which King Lear is the tragic hero however it is clear that just by misfortune he is deprived of something very valuable to him by error of
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Great expectations can be perceived as the expectations that one was born with or the standards that other people expect of them. However living up to other people s expectations is never easy. Especially when those expectations seem impossible to achieve. No one knows better than Harry Potter from the Ã¢â¬Å"Harry PotterÃ¢â¬ series, by J.K Rowling. Harry Potter has established himself as one of the best heroes of all time but before he was able to achieve his success, he spend a long time struggling to accept the expectations that other people put on him. As HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s story continues, readers are growing with Harry as they learn more about themselves as well. Through the great expectations of fictional character Harry Potter, I have learned how toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Everyone was curious of Harry because of his legacy and parentage. During HarryÃ¢â¬â¢s first day in his Potions class, his potion teacher Snape is very disappointed with him because he does not know Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëthe difference...between monkshood and wolfsbaneÃ¢â¬â¢ (Rowling, Sorcerer s Stone 109). Harry does not understand why others had such high expectations of him because he never wanted them and starts to resent them when he cannot produce the results that everyone expects of him. As Harry grows up, other people s expectations of him grow too. When Voldemort rises back to power, Harry learns from a prophecy that between Voldemort and him, Ã¢â¬Å"either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survivesÃ¢â¬ (Rowling, Order of the Phoenix 841). Harry realizes the he is expected to kill Voldemort and again has to struggle with these expectations that he did not chose himself. Harry erupts in disbelief, as he does not want to be the Chosen One. He cries out that Voldemort Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëmight have chosen wrong! ... He might have marked the wrong person!Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Rowling, Order of the Phoenix 842). After the death of his mentor, Harry f inally faces his expectations and decides that if he does not try to overcome the challenges that everyone expects him to, then there would be no one
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Assessing the consequences of our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s soaring imprison rates has less to do with the question of guilt versus innocence than it does with the question of who among us truly deserves to go to prison and face the restrictive and sometimes brutally repressive conditions found there. We are adding more than one thousand prisoners to our prison and jail systems every single week. The number of women in prisons and jails has reached a sad new milestone. As women become entangled with the war on drugs, the number in prison has increased if not double the rate of incarceration for men. The impact of their incarceration devastates thousands of children, who lose their primary caregiver when Mom goes to prison. StatisticsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In order to design criminal justice that matches the specific needs and strengths of women, one should consider the history and demographics of the female criminal and the patterns that are reflecting the life factors and offending. The vast majority of female offenders are drug related or property crimes. The impact of a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s arrest is more disruptive on the family. According to the California Research Bureau Ã¢â¬Å"two thirds of incarcerated mothers were the primary caregivers for at least one child before they were arrestedÃ¢â¬ (Simmons, 2000, p. 6) With significant impact on the family unit it is difficult not to mention the effect of mothers being incarcerated is creating more psychological problems among children. Parental arrest creates shame, fear, guilt, trauma, and anxiety, which in turn adds to the decline of behavior manifestations in children. When children withdraw, or have low self-esteem their school performance declines, truancy increase, and the alcohol and drug usage leads to aggressive actions which creates cycle of incarcerations. More than half of those incarcerated receive visits from their children. I believe that if these women are in detention for behaviors that do not im pair others then we should have one facility per state that incorporates a campus like environment for prolonged sojourns for children. It is by no accident that children suffer at the hands of the system. For each time a childShow MoreRelatedThe Battle Of The Duke Rape Case1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUniversity lacrosse players of having committed sexual assault during a party that the players held in their house, which allegedly followed a stripping job Crystal Mangum performed for the players. After the allegation, a sexual assault kit was conducted and processed. Following the processing, it was found that none of the Duke University lacrosse playersÃ¢â¬â¢ DNA was found in the sexual assault test kit. However, multiple other menÃ¢â¬â¢s DNA was found in the sexual assault test kit. With this knowledge, DurhamRead MoreInmates Abuse in Prison Essay1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesallegations of sexual abuse in prisons. About 46 % of the sexual abuse involved staff with inmates. But these statistics do not include the many cases that go unreported due to victimÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of being punished by their perpetrators and/ or to embarrassment and humiliation that comes with rape. Although prison rape is prevalent, many individuals find it normal and even find it a laughing matter. Prison rape is abnormal and has huge consequences if not dealt with. Some of the consequences of prison rape areRead MoreRape: You Could Be the One in Six856 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdifferent types of rape- sexual assault, child sexual abuse, drug facilitated assault, obsessive/ sadistic rape, sexual exploitation, sexual harassment, stranger rape, and partner rape. There are many laws against rape but many rape cases are not reported one of the first Rape Crisis Centers were established in 1974 to help women and men in their communities. However, rape is not given enough importance in this society. This is a big issue for vulnerable children, women and men. People areRead MoreThe Criminal Lawsuit And Rape1640 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesnegligenceÃ¢â¬ in its defense, citing that the victimÃ¢â¬âwho was working as a prison clerk at the same state prison her rapist was serving his sentence atÃ¢â¬âknew that the prisoner had open access to her office and therefore partially contributed to her assault. The two problems that arise from this are (1) contributory negligence is tort rule that is Ã¢â¬Å"abolished in most jurisdictionsÃ¢â¬ and (2) the fact that the defendants (the state prison, the prison superintendent, the Department of Corrections) were not the onesRead MoreRape- An Unwanted Sexual Violence1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRape Ã¢â¬â An Unwanted Sexual Violence Sexual violence, especially rape, is a major emerging health related issue in the United States of America. According to the NISVS survey conducted by the CDC Ã¢â¬â Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 20 percent of the women and 1.5 percent of the men (in the U.S.) have been involved in rape cases at some times in the past, while about 50 percent of the women and 20 percent of the men have been victims of sexual violence (other than rape) at some pointRead More Prison Essay1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat our prisons are the final frontier for the socially rejected criminals and violent offenders. We know that our prisons are so overcrowded that the Supreme Court of California issued a court order to reduce the number of inmates. We know that since there are more inmates in prison the chance of getting rehabilitated is very slim. And we also know that the ratio of supervision of guard to inmate is extremely high. But do we know what goes on in our prisons and jails? W e know we have prison gangsRead MoreSexual Assault And Rape During The Civil War914 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesNot only is sexual assault an ongoing issue in society, but there has also been a huge up rise of sexual assaults in the United States military. Recently women have been given the approval to fight on the front line in the Special Forces career field that was once male only career fields. For women, this may be a huge achievement; there are so many risks and fears involved, I would be curious to see how things turn out. Sexual assault and rape have been major issues in the military that is constantlyRead MoreIncarceration of Men, Women, and Juveniles Essay829 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIncarceration of Men, Women, and Juveniles Prison populations have been on the raise since the early 1970s. Today we incarcerate over 2 million men, women and juveniles in the various correctional facilities around the country. These facilities can range from local jails or detention facilities to the new so called Supermax prisons. Conditions can also vary across the spectrum for these different correctional institutions. Each type of inmate has his or her own challenges whenRead MoreCall to Action: Decreasing the Number of Sexual Assaults in the United States1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesto Action: Decreasing the Number of Sexual Assaults in the United States Sexual assault is a continued and rising problem in our society and women especially, should learn ways to reduce their risks of becoming an assault victim. The number of sexual assault cases is increasing at an alarming rate, making people think twice about what theyÃ¢â¬â¢re doing and with whom. Ã¢â¬Å"Sexual assault is both a consequence and reinforcement of the power disparity between men and women. It is a violent act of power whichRead MoreSexual Assault On College Campuses Essay1176 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSexual Assault on College Campuses When it comes to choosing a college, there are many factors in this major life decision: price, location, type of education, and finally, safety. Young women in college campuses across the country, although no campus is immune from these heinous acts, safety is still a main concern. Ã¢â¬Å"If you knew your son had a 20% chance of being held up at gunpoint, youÃ¢â¬â¢d think twice before dropping your kid off,Ã¢â¬ says Vice President Joe Biden. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, my God, you drop a daughter
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Discuss about theManagement Control Systems at Delta Airlines. Answer: Introduction The teaching of financial matters does not give an adequate snapshot of the inner exercises of companies that give dependable direction to the architects of management control systems. Different methodologies, most quiet those in view of basic hypothesis, have been utilized to ponder different parts of the part and utilize made of bookkeeping systems, however, have tended to focus on sectional intrigue as opposed to on general control (Luciane and Reinaldo, 2013). It is seen that "execution" is itself a questionable term, and arranged to do no direct definition. In particular, the term does not decide to whom the affiliation is passing on its 'execution'. We will begin at a various leveled phase of examination and acknowledge that an affiliation that is performing awesome is one that is accomplishing its goals; in various terms, one that is suitable executing an appropriate strategy. Everything thought of it as, will wind up recognizably obvious that more thought ought to be paid to the significance of implementation from the points of view of applicable partners (Alexandre and Nicols, 2016). Besides, as opposed to endeavoring to build up a very much explained hypothesis from first standards, a more inductive method is taken which draws on the previous contribution in focus progressive control systems to recognize some key issues that seem, by all accounts, to be vital to different affiliations. The support of the system so made will be displayed by using it to separate three instances of surviving control procedures, and to recognize components of their application that appear to have been disregarded by analysts and professionals. Deltas Management Control System The estimation of the execution of business and different associations have long been of focal enthusiasm to chiefs and management bookkeeping analysts (Liwen Jingkun, 2015). Notwithstanding, management bookkeeping has tended to confine itself to considering as it were money related execution and to utilize structures and hypotheses drawn principally from the train of financial matters. Indeed, even the consideration that has been paid to the purported 'behavioral parts' of management bookkeeping has been consolidated into the monetary way to deal with the improvement of Delta Airlines. Management control systems at Delta Airlines give information which is suggested to be useful to bosses in performing their occupations and help the relationship in making and keeping up possible cases of direct. Any evaluation of the piece of such information, like this, requires thought of how executives make use of the information being given to them. The customary structure for considering these issues was produced by Ball (2015). Management control was characterized by Binod et al., (2013) as "the procedure by which administrators guarantee that assets are gotten and utilized adequately and effectively in the achievement of the Delta Airline's goals." This definition restricted ensuring specialists not exclusively to visualize MCS as including the to a great extent bookkeeping based controls of arranging, observing of exercises, measuring execution as well as integrative systems, it additionally served to isolate management control from key control and operational control falsely. MCS has additionally been portrayed as procedures for affecting conduct. MCS gives way to picking up participation among aggregates of people or authoritative units who may share just mostly harmonious targets and be directing those endeavors toward a predetermined arrangement of hierarchical objectives. Controls have been sorted from numerous points of view. For instance, formal and casual controls, yield and conduct controls, market, organization and group controls, managerial and social controls, and results, activity and staff controls. A concise exchange of these groupings will delineate the broadness of controls utilized as a part of the research. Formal controls incorporate guidelines, standard working methods, and planning systems (Farhad Akram, 2012). These are the more unmistakable, target segments of the control system, and consequently, the simplest to query. Experimental research that reviews MCS, what's more, the technique has concentrated fundamentally on formal controls. These incorporate yield or results from controls which are of a critical nature, and regularly monetarily situated. They incorporate controls that mean to guarantee that particular results will be accomplished and include checking, measuring and taking restorative activities. Controls that concentrat e on feedforward control (ex-stake controls) incorporate regulatory controls (standard working strategies and tenets), staff controls (human asset management arrangements) and conduct controls (the progressing checking of exercises and choices). Costs that may be Avoided or Incurred With such a flexible management control system at Delta Airlines, a cost that is likely to be avoided is unnecessary marketing budgets because the airline deals directly with the passengers/customers. Cost control called cost management, or cost direction is a wide course of action of cost accounting methodologies and management strategies with the mutual goal of upgrading business cost-profitability by diminishing costs or potentially keeping their rate of improvement. Delta Airlines use cost control strategies to screen, survey, and in the long run redesign the efficiency of specific regions, for instance, workplaces, divisions, or item offerings, inside their operations (Jay et al., 2011). In the midst of the 1990s cost control exercises got a crucial thought from corporate America (McManus, 2011). Much of the time showing up as corporate reconstructing, divestment of periphery works out, mass reductions, or outsourcing, cost control philosophies were seen as essential to defendor liftcorporate advantages and to keep upor geta high ground. The objective was consistent to be the negligible exertion creator in a given industry, which would ordinarily empower Delta Airlines to take a more significant advantage for every unit of offers than its adversaries at a given esteem level. A capricious business requires visit information about operations in order to prepare for the future, to control demonstrate works out, and to evaluate the past execution of directors, laborers, and related business pieces. To be viable, management controls the activities of its kind in the operations of the business as demonstrated by pre-developed destinations and targets (Jennifer et al., 2015). Management's heading takes two sorts of control: (1) the management and supervision of direct, and (2) the evaluation of execution. Behavioral management deals with the perspectives and exercises of agents. While agent lead in the long run impacts on the advance, behavioral management incorporates certain issues and suppositions not material to accounting's control work. On the other hand, execution appraisal measures after effects of laborer's exercises by taking a gander at the authentic outcomes of business results to build up benchmarks of accomplishment (Pederzini, 2016). Like this, management perceives the qualities it needs to open up, and the inadequacies it hopes to correct. This methodology of appraisal known as cost control. It is a consistent strategy that begins with the proposed yearly spending arrangement (Johan Alistair, 2017). The spending helps: To constitute and facilitate the dissemination, offering, creation, benefit, and supervisory measurements To take the greatest favorable position of accessible open doors. Concluding Remarks The conclusion is quite clear. Albeit singular methods of management bookkeeping and control at Delta Airlines have been examined separately in a limited setting, likewise they require to be considered as a feature of a more extensive authoritative control system. The utilization of management bookkeeping and control systems can be productively broke down from the structure of execution estimation and execution management. This influences it to clear that management bookkeeping and other execution estimation should be assessed not simply from a monetary point of view, but rather from a social, behavioral and administrative viewpoint, inside a general hierarchical setting. It is these social, cross-national and social perspectives that make the investigation of control systems such an interesting theme for scholastic research and such a test to the expert. This paper has endeavored to give a diagram structure that will offer assistance the two scholastics and specialists to all the more completely comprehend the setting in which they are working, and to help create control rehearses that are appropriate to the settings in which they are connected. The aim of utilizing execution measures is to impact administrative conduct with the goal that Chiefs (directors) have the learning and inspiration to act in the Delta Airlines best advantages. References Alexandre P. and Nicols C. (2016). Indirectly productive entrepreneurship. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, 5(2), 161-175. Ball, P. (2015). Low energy production impact on lean flow. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 36(3), 412-428. Binod K. Shrestha and Devi R. Gnyawali. (2013). Insights on strategic management practices in Nepal. South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, 2(2), 191-210. Farhad A. and Akram S. (2012). Strategic management: the case of NGOs in Palestine. Management Research Review, 35(6), 473-489. Jay M., Abubakar Y A, Sagagi M. (2011). Knowledge creation and human capital for development: the role of graduate entrepreneurship. Education + Training, 53(5), 462-479. Jennifer Kerr, Paul Rouse, and Charl de Villiers. (2015). Sustainability reporting integrated into management control systems. Pacific Accounting Review, 189-207. Johan G. and Alistair R. A. (2017). Entrepreneurship and context: when entrepreneurship is greater than entrepreneurs. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior Research, 23(2), 267-278. Liwen Tan, Jingkun Ding. (2015). The frontier and evolution of the strategic management theory: A scientometric analysis of Strategic Management Journal, 2001-2012. Nankai Business Review International, 6(1), 20-41. Luciane Reginato and Reinaldo Guerreiro. (2013). Relationships between environment, culture, and management control systems. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 219-240. McManus, J. (2011). Revisiting ethics in strategic management. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 11(2), 214-223. Pederzini, G. D. (2016). Strategic management cultures: historical connections with science. Journal of Management History, 22(2), 214-235.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Remember the Titans Paper Vincent Donato Group Comms. 9:30 M W Remember the Titans 1) Interdependence is the mutual reliance on one another between two or more individuals in a group. In a group or a team each individual is relying on one another to perform to a certain level of expectation in order for their team or group to succeed. With each individual of the group or team it is important to discuss the mutual agreement of what they are expected of. In Remember the Titans the scene where Gery and Julius after a 3-a-day practice talk about honesty. The conflict between them is seen in this scene. Gery is expecting for Julius to pull or push the opponent or do something to get past the line. While Julius responds for his expectation of Gery to be a captain and tell his Ã¢â¬Å"white buddyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ to block for Rev better. With the continuing of this argument they finish by saying that if they both donÃ¢â¬â¢t perform what they are expected to, they will leave will leave one of their teammates out to dry including each other. By discussing what is expected of each other in order for their team to succeed shows example to how Interdependence is so important to achieve the ultimate goal they share. 4) Group Cohesion is the bonding between the group/team. With group cohesion it is the ability to bring the team or group together as one and to form a sense of unity in their group or team. With the successful ability to form this group cohesion, the feeling that an individual feels emotionally towards another member of the group/team and towards the group/team as a whole plays an important role in success. We will write a custom essay sample on Remember the Titans specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Remember the Titans specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Remember the Titans specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In Remember the Titans the locker room scene where they use verbal humor by calling an individual on a team Ã¢â¬Å"sunshineÃ¢â¬ because of his golden locks and also by trash talking about each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s mommaÃ¢â¬â¢s. This trash talking is the ability to joke around about a sensitive topic such as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mom but by this group cohesion that they are forming makes this subject not so sensitive. From the reminding of sunshineÃ¢â¬â¢s hair of BertierÃ¢â¬â¢s Momma, to when Lastik complains about his back problem for giving Petey JoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mom a piggy back ride. The group cohesion is even more well seen by the singing of Ã¢â¬Å"AinÃ¢â¬â¢t no mountain high enoughÃ¢â¬ when both the African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s and the White members of the team join in to sing for this team bonding moment. 6) The group conflict between Ray Budds group and the whole idea of allowing African AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s to play on the same team as the whites. This conflict that Ray Budds has with this team conflict is classified as an Ego Conflict. Unlike Simple Conflict where it is just a disagreement over facts and easy to resolve, Ego Conflict is a lot harder to solve because an individual cannot point a finger at the issue but instead has to reach inside his personal well being to solve the problem. His Ego Conflict continues as he finds a common group of individualÃ¢â¬â¢s in the movie that agree with his views rather than opening himself to a different group who do not share his views so he can find a solution to his Ego Conflict. We can notice through his facial expression how he shows disgust and hatred towards the African Americans as one of his group members gets involved in singing Ã¢â¬Å"Aint no mountain high enough. Ã¢â¬ This facial expression is emphasized in this scene because one of his group members joined in to resolve his issue which Ray could have done as well but his Ego was too strongly against this issue to even consider it. 10) At the end of the movie the racial issue between the African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s and the Whites is finally resolved between the players. The group/team members finally came together for two main reasons from what I saw. The first reason is the most important reason because of the group/team came upon a common goal that they shared which was to win. They realized as a team that if they continued to be segregated they were going to be unable to reach this goal. They also realized that each individual on the team had something to bring, the Interdependence of relying on one another in a specific position helped them realize that they were going to need Petey JoneÃ¢â¬â¢s speed and hands as a wide receiver and Gery Bertier leadership to come together to reach this common goal. Another main reason why they came together was the domino theory. As one individual fell and saw the pros of desegregating the team another individual would follow. The coaches in this part played a huge roll because of the leadership they have, as soon as Coach Boon and Coach Bill got on the same page and accepted desegregation the team followed. These choices were all by individual as some of the individuals quit because of this racial war and would not change for the better of themselves and the team. remember the titans Essay Example remember the titans Paper In the early 1970s, two schools in Alexandria Virginia Join together forming T. C. Williams High School. The Caucasian head coach of the Titans is replaced by an African American coach from North Carolina. Tensions rise when players of different races are forced together on the same football team. Many of these conflicts are eased during the two-week training camp. When players returned to Alexandria the players found the city in turmoil due to the forced desegregation of the high school. As the season progresses the teams success caused the community to accept the changes. After the Titans perfect season, the team and the city were closer than ever. The main conflict of the movie was racial segregation between the Caucasian and African American football players and their families. The team confronted many racial differences, but at the end they overcame the problem and acted like real soul brothers after a successful football season together (Titans). Four of the racial haracteristics shown in the movie were Prejudice, racism, discrimination and segregation. Prejudice refers to thoughts and feelings about those groups (Openstax 232). Racism is a type of prejudice that involves set beliefs about a specific racial group (Openstax 232). Discrimination refers to the actions toward them (Openstax 232). Segregation refers to the physical separation of two groups, particularly in residence, but also in workplace and social functions (Openstax 236). Racial Prejudice was presents at all times in the movie. We will write a custom essay sample on remember the titans specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on remember the titans specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on remember the titans specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The opening scenes, articularly the information regarding a white shopkeeper murdering a black man and not being found guilty, emphasizes one of the main themes of this film, which is racial discrimination. We see this equality in the Titans, when head Coach Boone makes it clear that the best players will get the starting positions, regardless of their race. Each individual must work hard to earn his place, and the amount of effort required is equal, no matter what color his skin might be. Only with this equal status can any resentment be erased from either side.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Tom Clancy's genius Essays - Ryanverse, Tom Clancy, Debt Of Honor Tom Clancy's genius English Tom Clancy's genius The Cold War and post Cold War eras have brought with them many interesting aspects. New technologies initially meant for mass destruction filter down into the civilian world, making current lives easier. One example of this is the anti-lock braking systems of todays cars. Originally designed to slow fighter-planes on landing without skidding, these systems make it safer for parents to take their children on vacation. One less noted advancement the eras brought is a considerable amount of exciting and forewarning fiction. While most authors chose to warn of nuclear and post nuclear holocaust, one significant author chose a different approach. Tom Clancy chose to write of conventional warfare and sometimes unconventional enemies. Between his novel Red Storm Rising and Debt of Honor, Tom Clancy makes evident the changing face of Americas enemies and threats, while staying true to issues that keep people interested in his books. Published in 1986, Red Storm Rising is Tom Clancys second novel dealing with the former Soviet Union as a potential enemy. This was a time when Americas finest tank and infantry units went on exercises in Germany fully armed with the expectation that the Russians could attack them at any time. This was also a time when the Soviets did the same exercises with the same amount of live ammunition. Therefore there was reason enough to worry about potential conflicts. Deep within the ocean waters, submarines played similar cat and mouse games with other submarines and surface ships. However some of these submarines were more dangerous then a whole army because they were fully loaded with nuclear missles. These facts were well know to the American public and made Red Storm Rising all the more real when it combined land and ocean warfare in a way that captivated millions of readers. The book begins as the Soviet Unions ability to provide their own oil is cut off by a terrorist attack. Right away it is noted that two very frightening events have just happened. Terrorism, for one, is a major scare tactic that can and does strike fear into millions. This was demonstrated by two suspected attacks in the U.S. recently (Bombing of Flight 800 and the Olympic Park bombing). Secondly, the threat of losing petroleum resources is enough to drive governments to drastic measures. This fact is evident in the worlds participation in the 1991 Gulf War. The leaders of the Soviet Union decided that the only way to prevent the total collapse of their economy and country was to seize the oil rich Middle East. They also realized that the countries that make up the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in particular the United States would not stand for this hostile action. Consequently the Soviets determine that it will be necessary to neutralize NATO conventionally; that is to say without nuclear weapons. Of course, throughout the Cold War the many themes of the U.S.S.R. attacking the U.S are presented by various authors. All of these had the same result: nuclear holocaust. One exception is that Red Storm Rising is the first to present it (theme of U.S.S.R. attacking the U.S.) in a non-nuclear scenario. This is very intriguing to examine the possibilities which include all the new technological weapons in the American and Soviet arsenals. Red Storm Rising captivates audiences with its techno-wizardry of smart bombs and satellite guided cruise missles. It was like an arcade game. Big, slow-moving blips denoted the aircraft. Smaller, quicker blips were the Mach-2 missiles (Clancy 178). This was seen by a radar operator who was under attack during Red Storm Rising. However it is not the high tech gadgets that appeal to audiences of Red Storm Rising. There is a personable feel as the reader becomes better acquainted with the characters and sympathizes for them and the decisions they make. This is not the story of machines run by artificial intelligence, these are real people, friends, and neighbors of the reader. Bob Toland was a middle-level analyst at the National Security Agency. Hed left the Navy after six years whey the adventure of uniformed service had palled, but he remained an active reservist. His work at NSA dovetailed nicely with his naval reserve service. A communications expert with a degree in electronics, his current job eas monitoring Sovien signals gathered by the NSAs numerous listening posts and ferret satellites. Along the way hed also gotten a masters in the Russian language (Clancy 55). The description of Bob Toland could apply to anyone in the Washington D.C. area or any neighborhood across the